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ToreLane Icon: Menü Menü. Fifa 17 Bot Video. Wilkinson Ed. Ericsson, K. The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner, H. Five minds for the future. Haworth, L. Hill, J. Housner, L. Ingersoll, R. Joubert, M. Craft, B. Leibling Eds. Leinhardt, G. The cognitive skill of teaching.
Mayer, R. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. McLaren, P. Mehan, H.
Learning lessons. Bos, H. Holtappels Eds. Olson, D. Psychological theory and educational reform. Palincsar, A. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning.
Spence, J. Foss Eds. Park-Fuller, L. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. The intellectual and policy foundations of the 21st century skills framework.
Pineau, E. Rogoff, B. Cognition as a collaborative process. Siegler Eds. Rubin, L. Artistry in teaching. Sarason, S. Teaching as a performing art. Sawyer, R.
Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences. The new science of learning. New York: Basic Books. Shavelson, R. Smith, R. Is teaching really a performing art?
Timpson, W. Torrance, E. Interscholastic futuristic creative problem solving. Trilling, B. Yinger, R. Routines in teacher planning.
A study of teacher planning. By this I mean that we should liken teaching to other explicitly improvisational professions such as unscripted theater and jazz music, where conscious efforts are made to develop improvisational expertise, and where a body of knowledge has been built up for doing so.
This reconceptualization of teacher expertise will be an important move toward supporting the kinds of teaching that are needed to meet the demands of our society in the twenty-first century.
The assertion that good teaching involves improvisation is a statement of the obvious to any experienced classroom teacher.
But improvisation has rarely been an explicit part of conversations about teaching, and because we do not talk much about our improvisation, we limit our ability as a profession to advance our knowledge and capacity for improvising well.
Unlike other improvisational professions, we do not have a well-elaborated, shared notion of what constitutes excellent improvisation, nor do we know much about how teachers learn to improvise or what teacher educators can do to facilitate that learning.
Yet, as I explain later in the chapter, many scholars In R. This chapter focuses on teacher education because these programs are important sites for conversations about teaching; this is where we can pass on to our next generation of teachers ideas about what we hope teaching will be.
I identify two barriers to the reconceptualization of teaching as disciplined improvisation. First, I show that few teacher educators have thought systematically about the role of improvisation in teaching or have adopted it as a learning goal for their students.
Second, I argue that teacher education students do not naturally come to the view that teaching should be improvisational, due to certain deeply held, culturally based beliefs about teaching that I identify in this chapter.
To overcome these two barriers, I describe how familiar methods in teacher education can be easily adapted for the purpose of helping future teachers understand the improvisational nature of teaching.
I begin the chapter by explaining the importance of an improvisational view of teaching to the educational needs of the twenty-first century.
I then discuss what we can expect to gain by viewing teaching as not just improvisational, but as professionally improvisational.
Next, I examine how improvisation currently figures in conversations within teacher education, as evidenced by a content analysis of methods textbooks; this content analysis helps us understand why the improvisational dimension of teaching may be less obvious to pre-service teachers than it is to those with experience in the classroom.
In the final section of the chapter, I propose strategies that teacher educators can use to help their students think productively and professionally about the improvisation that teachers do.
I join with other authors in the volume in arguing for a new conception of teacher expertise that includes expertise in improvisation.
However, I focus on teacher expertise as seen not through the eyes of scholars but through the eyes of pre-service teachers. I examine the tension between teaching viewed as a form of professional improvisation and the planning-centric view of teaching that teacher education students often bring to their programs, and that those programs implicitly reinforce.
I address this tension by presenting strategies for moving pre-service teachers away from a view of teaching as desirably scripted toward a view of teaching as desirably improvisational.
Like many authors, I use the improvisational metaphor to analyze teacher expertise. As Sawyer points out , this volume , this metaphor has limits, because there are important ways in which the aims and circumstances of teaching differ from those of artistic performance.
In this chapter, my assertion is that the key feature that teaching should share with jazz music and theatrical improvisation, although it currently does not, is the availability of an explicitly held and deliberately taught body of knowledge about how to successfully improvise in order to accomplish the intended aims of the profession.
It is my hope that this chapter and this volume will serve as catalysts for the development of explicit professional knowledge for improvisational teaching.
The schooling needs of the knowledge society, however, are different from those of an industrial society. To prepare our young people to participate in the knowledge society, we need to develop more than just their factual knowledge base.
In addition, students need to have many experiences involving collaborative work. In these respects, schooling for the knowledge society rests firmly on a constructivist vision of teaching.
Constructivist learning theory views learning as a process in which individuals construct new knowledge by reorganizing their existing knowledge in light of experiences that challenge their present understandings.
Whereas constructivism is a descriptive theory of the learning process, and therefore makes no prescriptions for teaching, there is a wealth of scholarship that considers how we might leverage a constructivist understanding of learning in order to optimize the teaching process.
Specific recommendations vary across content areas, but there are some general features that have emerged as hallmarks of constructivist-based teaching Richardson, ; Windschitl, To begin, the core idea behind constructivist-inspired teaching is that students should be placed in situations that challenge their prior conceptions and press them to develop more sophisticated ones.
To do this successfully, teachers need lots of opportunities to find out what and how students are thinking, and this in turn means that instructional time should involve a great deal of teacher-student interaction.
Improvisation is implicated in constructivist-based teaching in a number of ways. This will depend on how they connect Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 31 the new aspects of the lesson to their prior knowledge.
Teachers must make instructional decisions on the fly, based on careful observation and diagnosis of student thinking. Although Simon observed this teaching cycle in the context of a mathematics classroom, the basic features of the teaching process he describes would hold for constructivist-based teaching in other disciplines.
Based on this hypothesis, the teacher selects learning goals for the lesson and chooses activities designed to accomplish these goals.
Then, as the teacher interacts with and observes students during the lesson, two things happen simultaneously and continuously. At the same time, the teacher observes what is happening in the interactions and assesses student thinking.
Based on these assessments, she modifies her hypothetical learning trajectory, which in turn requires modification of the immediate learning goals and activities.
To develop new, more sophisticated ways of thinking, students need opportunities to encounter the limitations of their existing understandings, to actively work with unfamiliar ideas, and to generate and explore new possibilities for their own thought.
This is not just a matter of providing activities in which students can improvise new understandings, but also of establishing certain social and intellectual norms in the classroom.
On this view, the aim of teaching should not be simply for individual students to do individual thinking, but rather for students to engage in conceptual interchange with their peers and their teacher.
Through collaborative dialogue, students work collectively toward more robust understandings. The flow of the lesson needs to be collaboratively determined, perhaps guided in strategic ways by the teacher, but at the same time necessarily emergent from the interactive give-and-take between teacher and students and between students and each other.
It is important for teachers to think of teaching as improvisational so that they do not attempt to control too tightly the flow of the lesson; this would circumvent the co-construction process Sawyer, Teaching improvisationally emphasizes knowledge generation rather than knowledge acquisition.
For example, Kelley, Brown, and Crawford argue that teaching improvisationally is crucial in science education because students need to experience science as a process rather than as a product.
This same principle holds for other subjects as well. In descriptions of constructivist-based teaching, the themes of teacher flexibility and responsiveness appear frequently.
Second, considering teaching in terms of improvisation can help teachers think not only about their own responsiveness and flexibility, but also about generating successful student improvisation and effective collaboration between teachers and students.
Third, thinking of teaching as improvisation may be more productive within teacher education than simply asserting that teachers need to be flexible and responsive.
Telling someone to be responsive is not very useful; professional improvisation is a valuable model because improvisers in jazz and theater are taught exactly how to be flexible and responsive.
Teaching Improvisation as Professional Improvisation For the previously outlined reasons, it is important that we begin to attend explicitly to the improvisational nature of teaching.
Simply becoming aware that teaching is improvisational is not enough, however. When seen from the perspective of constructivist learning theory and the educational demands of the knowledge society, improvisation is not something that is incidental in teaching; it is central, and therefore we need to focus our efforts on doing it expertly.
We need to think of ourselves as professional, rather than incidental, improvisers. Consider what might be gained for the teaching profession if we begin to think of ourselves as professional improvisers.
To begin, seeing ourselves as professional improvisers creates an imperative to take our improvisation seriously, to attend to our successes and failures, and to strategize about how to improvise better.
Further, viewing teaching as an improvisational profession will lead to the development of a body of professional knowledge to support our improvisation.
Established improvisation communities such 34 DeZutter as jazz music and unscripted acting have well-elaborated, shared notions of what constitutes successful improvisation, from which are derived clear learning goals for newcomers and accompanying techniques for helping learners accomplish those goals.
Improv actors have a detailed set of criteria for evaluating the success of a performance. As this list suggests, alongside an elaborated vision of what constitutes successful improv comes a vocabulary that provides a shorthand for talking about the components of that success and for talking about failures.
These things then translate into learning goals for those who are new to the profession. These guidelines reflect the accumulated wisdom of the community about what works to make a satisfying experience for the audience.
And because the guidelines are teachable, they prevent newcomers from having to create from scratch the strategies and skills needed for success.
No one expects novice actors to be good at improv right away. Over its sixty-year Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 35 history, the improv community has developed a wealth of methods for teaching improv acting, and the great improv teachers such as Paul Sills and Del Close are venerated as much, if not more, than the great performers.
Methods books for teaching improv abound e. Similar types of knowledge can be found in the jazz community; see Berliner, We need a similar body of knowledge in the teaching profession, including a well-elaborated vision of good improvisational teaching, a shared vocabulary, learning goals for new teachers, and accompanying techniques for developing improvisational ability.
One way to make progress toward these ends is to mine the wisdom of other improvisational communities.
Several scholars have already begun work of this type. Improv actors use games and other frameworks as scaffolds for successful improvisational performances.
Such structures impose parameters within which the improvisation occurs, and this serves to cut down to a manageable range the amount of improvisation necessary to produce a coherent performance.
Sawyer suggests that teachers need to design classroom activities with a similar idea in mind.
Activities need to allow students intellectual space to construct their own knowledge while at the same time scaffolding the construction process.
Sawyer 36 DeZutter also notes that it will be helpful to train teachers in some of the techniques used by theatrical improvisers.
There are a few such efforts currently underway. The work of Sawyer, Donmeyer, and Lobman demonstrates the value in attending to the knowledge for improvisation found in the theater community.
There is also some interesting work using insights from dance improvisation; see Fournier, this volume. However, drawing wisdom from other improvisational professions should not be our only strategy.
As Sawyer notes, the demands of teaching in a K school differ significantly from the demands of creating a performance in the arts.
If we are to advance the ability of the teaching profession to improvise, we will need to develop a vision, a vocabulary, and pedagogical techniques that are specific to teaching.
Indeed, that is where much of the current scholarship on teaching-as-improvisation will likely lead. At the same time, though, we need to engage in a parallel effort that will establish an audience for such scholarship, and extend the conversation about improvisation to others besides education scholars.
We need to take steps to help teachers understand why such scholarship matters, why it is important to understand teaching as improvisational, and why we should strive to improvise well.
Textbooks offer a reasonable proxy for the topics that are included in teacher education classes because to be adopted, a textbook must present the ideas Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 37 and concepts that teacher educators deem important.
I analyzed fourteen general-methods texts see Table 2. All generalmethods texts texts not focused on a particular grade level or content area were included, except for one text from Cengage that could not be acquired at the time of the study.
Texts devoted only to a single aspect of teaching, such as classroom management, were not included. The textbooks I examined treat constructivism in a variety of ways.
Several e. Others mention constructivism only long enough to link it to other terms or ideas that are used more frequently.
Still others e. It would be reasonable, then, to expect these texts to deal with teacher improvisation as a necessary feature of teaching that accomplishes such aims.
In a discussion of differences between expert and novice teachers, in which they cite Borko and Livingston , see below , Ornstein and Lasley explain, Experts engage in a good deal of intuitive and improvisational teaching.
They begin with a simple plan or outline and fill in the details as the teaching-learning process unfolds.
The act of teaching 5th ed. Another text, Frieberg and Driscoll , includes a section on using theatrical improvisation as a teaching technique but does not mention or suggest that improvisation should be an integral part of every teaching process.
In fact, the presence of this section may contribute to an impression that improvisation is not a normal part of teaching, but rather a special technique to be employed only in certain situations.
I then examined the possibility that teaching-as-improvisation is present in these texts, even though the term is not used.
Even though all of the texts give at least passing nods to concepts such as teacher flexibility, responsiveness, and in-the-moment revision of plans, the lack of sustained discussion of such issues, accompanied by an emphasis on detailed lesson planning and vignettes of teaching in which the improvisational elements are not made salient, means that readers new to the profession are unlikely to take away the message that teaching is necessarily and always improvisational.
Student reactions may make it necessary or desirable to elaborate on something included in the plan or to pursue something unexpected that arises as the lesson proceeds.
Topics that we might expect to be associated 40 DeZutter with teacher improvisation, such as attending to individual student needs, teaching students with differing rates of learning, and accounting for diverse student backgrounds, tend to be addressed with advice on how lessons should be planned, and that advice rarely includes planning for improvisational teaching.
All of the texts do at least mention that lesson plans must at times be revised on the fly, but there is an absence of sustained discussion about the necessary give-and-take between pre-lesson work and during-the-lesson decision making.
But the vignettes and case studies presented in these books rarely demonstrate the improvisational essence of teaching. Such descriptions also create the sense that the teacher is the only one who is shaping the direction of the lesson, because it is almost never made explicit that the flow of the lesson emerges from collaborative classroom dialogue.
These books do not show pre-service teachers the essential improvisational nature of teaching. And we know that pre-service teachers do not start teacher education programs with improvisational beliefs about teaching.
This is done chiefly by telling the information to the students. In one interesting example of research on this issue, Weber and Mitchell asked children, pre-service teachers, and practicing teachers to draw a picture of a teacher.
Weber and Mitchell concluded that this traditional image was widespread among not only pre-service Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 41 teachers but most people in our culture p.
Students, if depicted, were shown sitting passively, in orderly rows, eyes on the teacher. This experiment reveals the dominant image of teaching that teacher education students bring with them to their education classes.
Indeed, such transmissionist views have been shown to conflict with the learning of constructivist-based principles of teaching.
It makes sense under the transmission model to depict a teacher speaking in the front of a classroom to a group of silent or invisible students.
It makes far less sense, however, to depict a teacher this way under a constructivist-inspired model of teaching.
From a constructivist perspective, the act of teaching cannot be depicted without including the students in the image, because the intellectual activity of the students is what is important.
Such beliefs often act as a barrier to accurately understanding constructivistinspired approaches to teaching, and will very likely also be a barrier to inferring the improvisational nature of teaching.
From the transmissionist perspective, there is little reason for improvisation in teaching. Rather, planning exactly what the teacher will say and do during a lesson, even down to 42 DeZutter the minute details, seems advisable to ensure that all the important ideas get said and in the right order.
If new teachers understand the value of improvisational teaching to student learning, they are more likely to plan for improvisation instead of planning a script.
If they learn to think critically about the role of improvisation in teaching and to reflect on their own successes and failures in improvisation, they will become better classroom improvisers, and therefore, better teachers.
In addition, such conversations may generate a demand for more scholarly work on teaching as improvisation, which can then be incorporated into teacher education, further advancing the cause of excellence in improvisational teaching.
I would like to see improvisation addressed directly and substantively in forthcoming teacher education textbooks, but in the absence of such discussions, teacher educators should fill in the gaps by exploring the topic with their students.
Bringing Improvisation into Conversations within Teacher Education For guidance on incorporating conversations about improvisation into teacher education, we can turn first to the already well-developed body of literature on addressing teaching beliefs in teacher education.
As suggested by the earlier discussion, the initial step in helping pre-service teachers understand the role of improvisation in teaching will be to address their assumptions about the teaching-learning process, some of which may conflict with the idea that effective teaching involves successful improvisation.
Asking students to articulate and examine their beliefs about teaching helps them be more deliberate learners as they encounter new, challenging ideas, and it sets the stage for the career-long reflective consideration of the teachinglearning process that many teacher education programs strive to foster.
The skillful teacher educator will listen carefully to the notions of teaching that her students express and then find ways to link those notions to the ideas she hopes they will come to understand.
Such activities can be used as opportunities to open conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching as well. Blumenfeld, Hicks, and Kracjik suggest that lesson-planning activities, which are a mainstay of methods courses, can be an important site for students to articulate and examine beliefs about the relationship between particular pedagogical choices and student learning.
Woolfolk Hoy and Murphy note that having students write philosophies of learning can be a valuable tool for unearthing assumptions.
Students can be asked to revise these at later points in their preparation, and can thereby track the evolution of their beliefs. Such themes can then be included in the discussions that arise around these activities, so that students not only begin to unearth their assumptions relating to teacher improvisation, but also begin to learn that improvisation is an important issue in teaching.
Programs that address beliefs only briefly or in a piecemeal fashion are unlikely to be effective in moving students toward robust, research-based understandings.
Thus, conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching should be integrated throughout a teacher education program as well, so that teacher education students have multiple, recurring opportunities to reflect on this aspect of their teaching beliefs.
In inviting pre-service teachers to think about teaching as improvisation, teacher educators can expect to encounter certain challenges.
I have mentioned that transmissionist beliefs held by many pre-service teachers are likely to create difficulties for thinking about teaching as improvisation, because teaching understood as transmission seems to require scripting more than improvising.
Lortie makes the point that upon entering a teacher education program, pre-service teachers have had twelve or more years of observing teaching from the vantage point of the student.
As apprentice observers, people gain many images of teachers that they carry into preparation programs, but these images only include the parts of teaching a student can see.
Teacher planning and on-the-fly decision making are mostly invisible to the student, and this masks the nature of teaching as skilled improvisation.
From the student perspective, routines and order are salient, but improvisation is not Labaree, The aim is not just that they understand that teaching is improvisational, but that they begin to think of themselves as professional improvisers who are deliberate about developing and employing improvisational skill.
Attaining this understanding is likely to be difficult, because teacher education students are not likely to have a well-developed sense of what might constitute improvisational excellence or what might be involved in achieving it.
Along with the other authors represented in this book, I argue that teacher educators can make an analogy to other professional improvisational communities, although this will require more than simply pointing out the commonalities between teaching and, for example, theatrical improvisation.
It is not obvious that professional improv performers engage in substantial training and preparation to become successful at their craft.
Therefore, teacher educators might ask students to consider such questions as what might be involved in learning to improvise at a professional level and what kinds of knowledge professional improvisers draw on.
It may even be useful to have students investigate some of the many books available on learning to improvise, and ask them to draw their own analogies between the skills explored in those texts and the skills involved in teaching.
In addition, narrative case studies are a common feature in methods texts. By discussing these examples of teaching with their peers and their professors, education students learn to think analytically about teaching, which is an important step toward becoming a professional educator.
As a part of these conversations, students should be invited to think about improvisation. When discussing their own teaching experiences, students can be asked about the role of improvisation in their teaching, and challenged to consider ways to make their teaching more successfully improvisational.
When discussing observations and case studies, the role of improvisation may be less apparent, and so it may be useful for teacher educators to pose questions that will make this more salient.
For example, a video case study can be paused to ask the viewers what the teacher is likely thinking about at a given moment and how she might respond to different contingencies, or to brainstorm about many possible directions in which the lesson may go depending on student responses.
Cases can also be evaluated in terms of what kinds of improvisational demands were placed on students What sort of knowledge construction opportunities were present?
In addition to including improvisation in discussions of examples of teaching, it should also be included in discussions of lesson planning.
Borko and Livingston established that experienced teachers teach more improvisationally than novices do because experienced teachers have more highly integrated knowledge structures relating to pedagogical strategies and content knowledge.
This finding cautions us that to some degree, improvisational skill may be a function of classroom experience. On the other hand, this work has implications for how we teach new teachers to plan their lessons.
Specifically, it might be valuable for teacher education students to consider what it means to plan to improvise.
Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 47 In addition, teachers may wish to attend more to the design of activities than to predetermining the flow of a lesson; this would help them attend to what kinds of explorations students will be supported to do.
As constructivist approaches to teaching emphasize, in order to build deep, conceptual understandings, students need opportunities for supported intellectual exploration.
Not only does teaching need to allow space for teachers to respond to evolving student thinking; it must be designed to allow teachers and students to improvise new understandings together.
Teachers need to be willing and effective improvisers, and this means that, as a profession, we must begin to explicitly examine the improvisation that we do.
The authors represented in this book are developing a body of knowledge for expert teaching improvisation that will parallel the kinds of knowledge found in other professional improvisation communities.
But at the same time as this work proceeds, we need to open the conversation about improvisational teaching to our next generation of teachers.
Future teachers will need to embrace improvisation as an important component in their professional work, and think deliberately and analytically about how to improvise better.
The idea that teaching is a form of professional improvisation may be a challenging one for many pre-service teachers, due to implicit transmissionist beliefs that make scripting a lesson seem more desirable than improvisation.
Therefore, it will be important for teacher educators to help future teachers unearth their assumptions about teaching, including those related to improvisation, and to create opportunities for them to develop more robust understandings of the teaching process and of why improvisation is central to it.
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Bruner, Eds. Wideen, M. Windschitl, M. Review of Educational Research, 72 2 , Woolfolk Hoy, A. Teaching educational psychology to the implicit mind.
Under the accountability agenda, teachers are required to measure and test students, to report using mandated standards and systems, and to teach in state sanctioned ways.
Under the creativity agenda, teachers are expected to act effortlessly, fluidly, to take risks, be adventurous, and to develop pedagogy and classroom creativity in order to develop their own knowledge and skills as creative professionals.
They are expected to develop creative learners who can succeed in a twenty-first-century economy that rewards creativity and innovation.
The accountability agenda makes it difficult for teachers to work more creatively. Teachers get overwhelmed by a constant barrage of accountability demands standards, tests, targets, and tables by government.
There is general agreement that governments are increasingly taking control of the teaching profession Alexander, Teachers are expected to perform in specific and regulated ways.
In contrast, the creativity agenda encourages teachers to take risks, be adventurous, and explore creativity themselves.
Yet, what constitutes creativity in education remains ambiguous. Whereas important research conducted a decade ago by Woods and Jeffrey identified how teachers cope with tensions surrounding In R.
The conflict between the creativity and accountability agendas in education causes tensions for teachers given the effect of all the tough talk of standards Ball, There is wide acceptance that teaching is a complex task involving a high degree of professional expertise see Sawyer, this volume.
In the United Kingdom, a government emphasis on creativity in learning has led to an expansion of artist-teacher partnerships.
In these partnerships, working professional artists visit the classroom for a limited time period and work side by side with the full-time teacher.
Partnerships have become a delivery model in education, which offers a forum for creative opportunities. Continue reading Leaving neverland stream.
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